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Glycopyrrolate: Glycopyrrolate is an anticholinergic
agent that may also be used as an antispasmotic in the treatment
of peptic ulcer disease. Like atropine it may also be used presurgery
to reduce salivation and bronchial secretions and minimize bradycardia
during intubation. Side effects may include include mydriasis
(dilation) of the pupils and increased intraocular pressure in
patients with glaucoma; dry, tenacious secretions of nose, mouth,
throat, and bronchi; decreased motility and secretions of the
gastrointestinal tract; heart rate increases; and decreased sweating.
Unlike atropine, however, glycopyrrolate is completely ionized
at physiological pH. Thus the occurrence of CNS related side effects
is lower, in comparison to their incidence following administration
of anticholinergics which are chemically tertiary amines that
can cross the blood brain barrier readily.